Sunday, May 31, 2020
Today, most Americans can only imagine what the horrors of the Holocaust must have been like and, to be frank, they are probably very glad that they have no personal experiences to draw on. However, the Holocaust, and other catastrophic events in history, must be remembered. Even as Americans who live nowhere near the places that were ravaged by destruction and genocide, we must attempt to understand the Holocaust, because even events as horrific as the genocide of Jews in Europe are a part of history and history tends to repeat itself. Many authors of Holocaust literature seem to believe that awareness equals prevention. Both words and images are a vital component of remembrance, as exemplified by allegorical Holocaust literature such as that created by authors Art Spiegelman and Eve Bunting. Art Spiegelman, in his Maus books, and Eve Bunting, author of the childrens book Terrible Things: An Allegory of the Holocaust, show us that words and images are both essential in represe ntations of the Holocaust. The use of an allegory in which animals symbolize people, when paired with careful style and pattern choices for illustrations, is highly effective in conveying the message that racism and division can lead, quite simply, to terrible things. Maus is an unusual account of the Holocaust it is strikingly different from most Holocaust literature targeted at adults, yet Spiegelmans work has attracted an amazing number of readers of all ages. In fact, Maus won the Pulitzer Prize in 1992, and has proven to be a staple in many college classrooms. In writing and illustrating Maus, Art Spielgelman took on the difficult task of accurately representing his fathers story, as well as depicting the things that Vladek told him in a way that the public could understand and appreciate. Interestingly, he chose to represent people in Maus as animals, with each race portrayed as a different animal. In this allegory, the Jews are depicted as mice, the Germans are cats, the Poles are pigs, and when Americans are introduced in Maus II, they are dogs. Besides creating an obvious division between some of the key groups in the Holocaust, readers can read more deeply into Spiegelmans choice of animal for each race. The cat and mouse idea behind the portrayal of the Germans and the Jews is a fairly obvious one. Speigelmans choice to draw the Poles as pigs, however, could be taken in several ways: perhaps they are depicted as pigs because they stand by and do nothing while the Jews are taken away, or perhaps the pig symbolizes the Poles greed and selfishness when they took over Jewish homes and businesses after the Jews were evacuated from Polish towns. Either way, Speigelmans depiction of these four races pushes readers to recognize the racial differences, hatred, and segregation that occurred during the Holocaust, and his allegory proves to be a poignant one. Throughout Maus and Maus II, Speigelman uses metaphors to spotlight the division between races in Europe at the time of the Holocaust. His two volumes follow Vladeks story from a time when he was a normal citizen of Poland, to a time when Jews, Poles, and Germans each had their distinctive places in society, and finally to a time when Jews were slaughtered simply for the fact that they were Jewish. Speigelmans depiction of Jews as mice helps readers who may know little about such extreme racism to understand that the differences in appearance, dialect, and the like were the primary signs that the Nazis used to direct their hatred. In the Holocaust all of the European races were human; similarly, in Maus all of the characters are animals, yet it is the subtle differences between them that cause the death of millions. When Vladek must take his wife Anja to the sanitarium, Speigelman illustrates a perfect world in which all animals can live in harmony. Though it is ironic that everyone is only at peace when they are in a sanitarium, this is the only time in his two volumes th at Speigelman brings all the different kinds of animals together. Here, there are mice, pigs, cats, and dogs, as well as rabbits, horses, giraffes, goats, and frogs. Once they leave the sanitarium and enter the real world again, however, racism rears its head and they separate once again. It is interesting that Speigelman chooses to send the message that only in a completely contrived, unnatural situation such as a health resort can different races be truly at peace, but nonetheless, this adds to the strength of his allegory. Buntings Terrible Things also uses animals to symbolize groups that were persecuted during the Holocaust. She and illustrator Stephen Gammell create a forest filled with rabbits, squirrels, fish, birds, frogs, and porcupines. All of the animals live together peacefully until the Terrible Things come to the forest and wreak havoc on natures harmony. The Terrible Things are not represented as animals, as the Nazis are in Maus, but rather as ethereal, haunting shadows that blot out the sun. The first time the Terrible Things come to visit, they say, We have come for every creature with feathers on its back. All of the animals of the forest say, We dont have feathers except, of course, for the birds, who are then taken away. Upon each return, the Terrible Things take away another type of animal, while the ones who do not meet the criteria look the other way, glad that they are able to stay in the clearing. The Terrible Things continue to come back, however, until they have taken away all the animals except for the white rabbits. Little Rabbit is afraid and wants to move, but Big Rabbit counters, Why should we move? This has always been our home. And the Terrible Things wont come back. We are the White Rabbits. It couldnt happen to us. Then, of course, it does: the white rabbits are taken away, all except for Little Rabbit who is small enough to hide in the rocks. In the end, Little Rabbit realizes that, If only we creatures had stuck together, it could have been different. Speigelmans metaphor for racism is echoed in Terrible Things, and here it is especially effective in teaching young children that no matter how different people are, bad things can happen to anyone. The books message is that it is important to stick together and try to help each other rather than ignore each others suffering. Terrible Things differs from Maus, however, in that each race is not associated with a specific animal. Also, the Nazis, or the Terrible Things, are not represented as animals, but rather as ominous clouds lurking over the forest. Terrible Things is more abstract than Maus, in that the animals do not represent particular groups (most likely because such references would most likely be lost on children, the intended audience); here, the allegory here focuses on obvious differences that children can see (feathers, color, ability to swim, etc.). Each group of forest animals has distinct differences, and each time th e Terrible Things come to take some of them away, the animals that remain are very glad that it is not their turn. Though this story may be disturbing to younger children, it is effective at alerting readers that differences between people should not cause such division that they allow terrible things to happen. As Bunting states as a sort of preface to Terrible Things, In Europe, during World War II, many people looked the other way while terrible things happened. They pretended not to know that their neighbors were being taken away and locked in concentration camps. They pretended not to hear their cries for help. The Nazis killed millions of Jews and others in the Holocaust. If everyone had stood together at the first sign of evil, would this have happened? Bunting invites children and adults alike to think about the consequences of their own actions and prejudices, and Gammells illustrations throughout Terrible Things inspire the same discomfort and sadness in children th at Speigelmans images of hatred and death in Maus inspire in adults. So, image paired with word, we see here, can make a big impact. Images can communicate things that even words cannot, and are especially relevant in the context of Holocaust literature. In representing the Holocaust through images, it is important to consider factors such as style, color, and placement. As an illustrator one must consider the effect that the illustrations will have on the viewer, and both Spiegelman and Gammell made choices that enhance comprehension in the reader and convey a clear message. Both illustrators portray their subjects in simple black and white, and both make the pictures take over each page in such a way that they become the main focus of the books. The use of black and white is convincing for depictions of the Holocaust, even when animals are the subject, because any real photographs that readers may have seen from the era would have been black and white. Black and white is oft en used to convey the gravity of a situation, as well, and using these shades to illustrate Maus and Terrible Things allows Speigelman and Gammell to create serious, somber messages about the possible consequences of hatred. Also, images take center stage in these books presumably because the story behind Holocaust is really about the people, about the victims, and about what happened to them, rather than merely an account of the number of dead bodies or a history of how Hitler came to acquire such power. With all their similarities, however, there are some marked differences between the two illustrators styles. While Spiegelman uses thick black lines and a comic book format, Gammell uses pencil drawings and a more realistic style. Both illustrators images are full of impact, though, because the pictures command such a power and presence on the page. The lack of color draws the reader to the image and begs them to analyze what they are seeing. For example, Gammell includes an i mage of a frightened squirrel who is about to be captured by the Terrible Things. Children reading this book will immediately notice the squirrels expression of fear because Gammell places the detailed creature so carefully on the page. In Maus II, likewise, Speigelman captures the expressions of burning bodies in the gas chambers of Auschwitz, and his use of bold lines captivates, horrifies, and consumes the reader. Also, in each book, the animal allegory adds to the impact of the pictures because for very young children who may not be able to handle images of real bodies, depictions of animals can serve as a gateway to understanding the true story of the Holocaust. Seeing these illustrations may be quite upsetting to children, and when they learn later that these things happened to humans, they will be able to assimilate the feelings they had when reading Terrible Things into what they are learning about real victims. Also, the allegory works to impact adult readers of Maus wh en they see Speigelmans drawings because the characters do clearly represent actual humans. In the end, Maus and Terrible Things leave readers feeling something powerful. Whether it is sadness, shock, or a determination to never again ignore the pain of others, Speigelman and Bunting have both created very poignant works. Using both words and images, these authors have done something that many Holocaust writers have not they have connected the words that many have heard about the Holocaust with images that make sense to their intended audience.
Saturday, May 16, 2020
Louis Daguerre (November 18, 1787Ã¢â¬âJuly 10, 1851) was the inventor of the daguerreotype, the first form of modern photography. A professional scene painter for the opera with an interest in lighting effects, Daguerre began experimenting with the effects of light upon translucent paintings in the 1820s.Ã He became known as one of the fathers of photography. Fast Facts: Louis Daguerre Known For: Inventor of modern photography (the daguerreotype)Also Known As: Louis-Jacques-MandÃ © DaguerreBorn: November 18, 1787 in Cormeilles-en-Parisis, Val-dOise, FranceParents:Ã LouisÃ JacquesÃ Daguerre, Anne Antoinette HauterreDied: July 10, 1851 in Bry-sur-Marne, FranceEducation: Apprenticed toÃ Pierre PrÃ ©vost, the first French panorama painterAwards and Honors:Ã Appointed an officer of theÃ Legion of Honour; assigned an annuity in return for his photographic process.Spouse: Louise Georgina Arrow-SmithNotable Quote: The daguerreotype is not merely an instrument which serves to draw Nature; on the contrary, it is a chemical and physical process which gives her the power to reproduce herself. Early Life Louis Jacques MandÃ © Daguerre was born in 1787 in the small town of Cormeilles-en-Parisis, and his family then moved to OrlÃ ©ans. While his parents were not wealthy, they did recognize their sons artistic talent. As a result, he was able to travel to Paris and study with the panorama painter Pierre PrÃ ©vost. Panoramas were vast, curved paintings intended for use in theaters. Diorama Theatres In the spring of 1821, Daguerre partnered with Charles Bouton to create aÃ dioramaÃ theatre. Bouton was a more experienced painter but he eventually bowed out of the project, so Daguerre acquired sole responsibility of the diorama theatre. The first diorama theatre was built in Paris, next to Daguerres studio. The first exhibit opened in July 1822 showing two tableaux, one by Daguerre and one by Bouton. This would become a pattern. Each exhibition would typically have two tableaux, one by each artist. Also, one would be an interior depiction and the other would be a landscape. The diorama was staged in a round room 12 meters in diameter that could seat up to 350 people. The room rotated, presenting a huge translucent screen painted on both sides. The presentation used special lighting to make the screen transparent or opaque. Additional panels were added to create tableaux with effects that could include thick fog, bright sun, and other conditions. Each show lasted about 15 minutes. The stage would then be rotated to present a second, completely different show. Diorama became a popular new medium and imitators arose. Another diorama theater opened in London, taking only four months to build. It opened in September 1823. Partnership With Joseph NiÃ ©pce Daguerre regularly used a camera obscura as an aid to painting in perspective, which led himÃ to think about ways to keep the image still. In 1826 he discovered the work of Joseph NiÃ ©pce, who was working on a technique for stabilizing images captured with the camera obscura. In 1832, Daguerre and NiÃ ©pce used a photosensitive agent based on lavender oil. The process was successful: they were able to obtain stable images in under eight hours. The process was called Physautotype. Daguerreotype After NiÃ ©pces death, Daguerre continued his experiments with the goal of developing a more convenient and effective method of photography. A fortunate accident resulted in his discovery that mercury vapor from a broken thermometer could speed the development of a latent image from eight hours to just 30 minutes. Daguerre introduced the daguerreotype process to the public on August 19, 1839, at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences in Paris. Later that year, Daguerre and NiÃ ©pces son sold the rights for the daguerreotype to the French government and published a booklet describing the process. The Daguerreotype Process, Camera and Plates The daguerreotype is a direct-positive process, creating a highly detailed image on a sheet of copper plated with a thin coat of silver without the use of a negative. The process required great care. The silver-plated copper plate had to first be cleaned and polished until the surface looked like a mirror. Next, the plate was sensitized in a closed box over iodine until it took on a yellow-rose appearance. The plate, held in a lightproof holder, was then transferred to the camera. After exposure to light, the plate was developed over hot mercury until an image appeared. To fix the image, the plate was immersed in a solution of sodium thiosulfate or salt and then toned with gold chloride. Exposure times for the earliest daguerreotypes ranged from 3-15 minutes, making the process nearly impractical for portraiture. Modifications to the sensitization process, coupled with the improvement of photographic lenses, soon reduced the exposure time to less than a minute. Although daguerreotypes are unique images, they could be copied by re-daguerreotyping the original. Copies were also produced by lithography or engraving. Portraits based upon daguerreotypes appeared in popular periodicals and in books. James Gordon Bennett, the editor of the New York Herald, posed for his daguerreotype at Bradys studio. An engraving based on this daguerreotype later appeared in the Democratic Review. Daguerreotypes in America American photographers quickly capitalized on this new invention, which was capable of capturing a truthful likeness. Daguerreotypists in major cities invited celebrities and political figures to their studios in the hopes of obtaining a likeness for display in their windows and reception areas. They encouraged the public to visit their galleries, which were like museums, in the hope that they would desire to be photographed as well. By 1850, there were more than 70 daguerreotype studios in New York City alone. Robert Cornelius 1839 self-portrait is the earliest extant American photographic portrait. Working outdoors to take advantage of the light, Cornelius (1809-1893) stood before his camera in the yard behind his familys lamp and chandelier store in Philadelphia, hair askew and arms folded across his chest, and looked off into the distance as if trying to imagine what his portrait would look like. Cornelius and his silent partner Dr. Paul Beck Goddard opened a daguerreotype studio in Philadelphia around May 1840 and made improvements to the daguerreotype process that enabled them to make portraits in a matter of seconds, rather than the three- to 15-minute window. Cornelius operated his studio for two and a half years before returning to work for his familys thriving gas light fixture business. Death Toward the end of his life, Daguerre returned to the Paris suburb of Bry-sur-Marne and resumed painting dioramas for churches. He died in the city at age 63 on July 10, 1851. Legacy Daguerre is often described as the father of modern photography, a major contribution to contemporary culture. Considered a democratic medium, photography provided the middle class with an opportunity to attain affordable portraits. The popularity of the daguerreotype declined in the late 1850s when the ambrotype, a faster and less expensive photographic process, became available. A few contemporary photographers have revived the process. Sources Ã¢â¬Å"Daguerre and the Invention of Photography.Ã¢â¬ Ã Nicephore Niepce House Photo Museum.Daniel, Malcolm. Ã¢â¬Å"Daguerre (1787Ã¢â¬â1851) and the Invention of Photography.Ã¢â¬ InÃ Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.Leggat, Robert. A History of PhotographyÃ from Its Beginnings Till the 1920s.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Coughing, wheezing, and faint cries of an infant; all are sounds of children affected by their parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ terrible habit: smoking. Secondhand smoke affects everyone nearby, everyone breathes in those horrible chemicals found in cigarettes. What a smoker does to themselves is a personal matter, but what they do to a non-smoker is different. New laws in Texas can help protect nonsmokers from secondhand smoke, as well as the harmful effects it causes. Secondhand smoke has many classifications, a well known term being Environmental Tobacco Smoke or ETS. There are two compounds of secondhand smoke; one is side-stream smoke. Side-stream smoke or SS smoke is the smoke coming from the lighted end of a cigarette. The second is mainstream smoke. Mainstream smoke is the smoke which is exhaled by the smoker. Side-stream smoke is the more harmful of the two because of the high level of carcinogens it contains. Carcinogens are known to be the cancer causing agent in humans. Side-stream smoke also has smaller particles than its counterpart, making a bystanders lungs and cells easy access for the smoke to enter. The more of this smoke, we breathe, the more harmful chemicals enter our body. Passive or involuntary smoking is when a non-smoker is exposed to secondhand smoke. A smoker and non-smoker take the smoke in through the same path (Ã¢â¬Å"Secondhand SmokeÃ¢â¬ ). As we continue to find out more about the risks of secondhand smoke restrictions in public places is becoming more accepted in the UnitedShow MoreRelatedOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words Ã |Ã 656 Pagesthat generated and were in turn fed by imperialist expansionism, one cannot begin to comprehend the causes and consequences of the Great War that began in 1914. That conflict determined the contours of the twentieth century in myriad ways. On the one hand, the war set in motion transformative processes that were clearly major departures from those that defined the nineteenth-century world order. On the other, it perversely unleashed forces that would undermine Western world dominance and greatly
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Electrophoresis is a separation technique based on the movement of charged ions under the influence of an electrical field. This technique is primarily used for the separation of amino acids and peptides on the basis of their charge. All amino acids contain ionizable groups that cause the amino acids, in solution, to act as charged polyelectrolytes that can migrate in an electric field. The amino acids with a net positive charge will migrate toward the negative electrode. Those with a negative net charge will move toward the positive electrode. An inert substance such as paper or gel is used as a supporting medium for the conducting liquid in most electrophoretic methods. In this experiment of separating amino acids, a phosphate buffer (pH 6) will be used as the conducting liquid and cellulose as the supporting medium. Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to determine the effect of an electrical field on charged particles and to use this information to identify the amino acids present in an unknown sample. We will write a custom essay sample on Electrophoresis of Amino Acids or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Equipment/Materials: Electrophoresis apparatus Graduated cylinders, 100 mL Hot plates Kimwipes Kodak Chromogram cellulose sheets with fluorescent indicator Metric ruler Ninhydrin spray Pasteuer pipets/bulbs Phosphate buffer pH 6 Pulled capillary tubes Scissors Standard amino acid solutions, ~0. 1M Unknown amino acid solutions Safety: * Goggles must be worn at all times. * Ninhydrin must be used under the hood. * Make sure the electrophoresis apparatus is off when inserting and removing the plate. * Wear gloves when handling plates and ninhydrin. Procedure: 1. Obtain a strip of a cellulose chromagram sheet that is approximately 5cm wide and 15cm long. REMEMBER: wear gloves. 2. Using a pencil, mark one end of the plate with a plus sign and the other end with a minus sign. (See the diagram on the following page. ) 3. Divide the two ends by drawing a line through the middle of the plate. Wipe the ruler with a Kimwipe before it touches the surface of the plate. 4. Place a tic mark on the line for each sample. Samples should be at least 1cm apart and 1cm from the edge. Place 3 samples on a sheet. 5. Label on one end of the plate what samples are on each tic mark. 6. Fill each electrode compartment with ~35mL of buffer. . Obtain 2 standard amino acid solutions and an unknown solution. 8. Use pulled capillary tubes to apply small volumes of the samples to the plate. Draw sample into the capillary tube by inserting the pointed end of the tube into the sample bottle. Use a different capillary tube for each sample. Do not contaminate samples by using a capillary tube from a different sample. Apply the sample to the plate by touching the end of the capillary tube to the proper mark on the line. Touch the plate lightly and quickly; the spots should be small. Reapply the same sample twice more to the same spot, allowing the plate to dry between applications. 9. Once the samples have dried, apply buffer to the plate using a Pasteur pipet. Begin by dropping the buffer at one end of the plate and then at the other end, allowing it to move toward the sample spots in the center. Continue in such a way that the buffer meets exactly at the middle line to reduce the migration of sample spots. 10. Carefully place the plate in the apparatus so that the plus corresponds to the positive electrode (red jack) and the minus side to the negative electrode (black jack). Be careful not to tilt the plate in any direction to avoid migration of the sample. 11. Turn on the apparatus and record the time. 12. Allow the sample to run for 45 minutes, or as long as possible, given time constraints. Each plate in the class must run for the same amount of time. 13. Turn the hot plate on low a few minutes before removing the plate. 14. Once the time has expired, turn off the apparatus and carefully remove the plate. Be sure to wear gloves. 15. Under the hood, spray the plate with ninhydrin. 16. Place the plate on the hot plate until it dries and spots appear.
Saturday, April 18, 2020
If you are laid back and love being at the beach, then you should try listening to the band, Sublime. Sublime is a ska punk and reggae rock band from California. Their band consists of 3 laid back, down to earth guys. Bradley Nowell, the voice of the crew, Eric Wilson, the bass, and Bud Gaugh, the drummer. Their band is so different and original, itÃ¢â¬â¢s impossible not to love them. Sublime has released so many creative songs such as Ã¢â¬Å"SanteriaÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Wrong WayÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"April 29, 1992Ã¢â¬ . Many people, even if they donÃ¢â¬â¢t listen to Sublime, have still heard these songs and love them. One of my personal favorites is Ã¢â¬Å"Scarlet BegoniasÃ¢â¬ where Nowell describes a beautiful, blues loving girl he met in California. SublimeÃ¢â¬â¢s most popular song, Ã¢â¬Å"What I GotÃ¢â¬ , will have everyone singing along with the radio. Unlike some bands, Sublime actually had a mascot. Their mascot was their Dalmatian, Lou Dog, who Bradley rescued and adopted. We will write a custom essay sample on Sublime by Sublime or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Louie has been known to walk around on stage during shows. Another popular figure for their band is the Sun. No one truly knows the meaning of the Sun, and whether or not it actually has a meaning. Their band worked so hard to get people to listen to them. Originally, no music venues would allow them to play early in their career because they were skeptical. Sublime then renamed themselves to Ã¢â¬Å"Skunk RecordsÃ¢â¬ to sound more professional. Music venues then started letting them play. They started going to small clubs and parties to play throughout southern California. After doing all of these shows, they recorded some songs and made a few short demos. All of their hard work finally paid off. Unfortunately, on May 25, 1996, Bradley Nowell died of an overdose just before they released their album, Ã¢â¬Å"KillinÃ¢â¬â¢ ItÃ¢â¬ . Their songs still live on, making you feel you are at the beach when you listen to them. Their vibes continue to be a big hit and have a special place in my heart. Work Cited Sublime, Long Beach California. Sublime. Sublime, 2016. n.d. 4 February 2016
Saturday, March 14, 2020
History and Timeline of the Wheelchair It is uncertain as to what can be considered the first wheelchair, or who invented it. The first known dedicated wheelchair (invented in 1595 and called an invalids chair) was made for Phillip II of Spain by an unknown inventor. In 1655, Stephen Farfler, a paraplegic watchmaker, built a self-propelling chair on a three-wheel chassis. The Bath Wheelchair In 1783, John Dawson of Bath, England, invented a wheelchair named after the town of Bath. Dawson designed a chair with two large wheels and one small one. The Bath wheelchair outsold all other wheelchairs throughout the early part of the 19th century. Late 1800s The Bath wheelchair was not that comfortable and during the last half of the 19th century, many improvements were made to wheelchairs. An 1869 patent for a wheelchair showed the first model with rear push wheels and small front casters. Between, 1867 to 1875, inventors added new hollow rubber wheels similar to those used on bicycles on metal rims. In 1881, the pushrims for added self-propulsion were invented. The 1900s In 1900, the first spoked wheels were used on wheelchairs. In 1916, the first motorized wheelchair was manufactured in London. The Folding Wheelchair In 1932, engineer, Harry Jennings, built the first folding, tubular steel wheelchair. That was the earliest wheelchair similar to what is in modern use today. That wheelchair was built for a paraplegic friend of Jennings called Herbert Everest. Together they founded Everest Jennings, a company that monopolized the wheelchair market for many years. An antitrust suit was actually brought against Everest Jennings by the Department of Justice, who charged the company with rigging wheelchair prices. The case was finally settled out of court. First Motorized Wheelchair - Electric Wheelchair The first wheelchairs were self-powered and worked by a patient turning the wheels of their chair manually. If a patient was unable to do this, another person would have to push the wheelchair and patient from behind. A motorized or power wheelchair is one where a small motor drives the wheels to revolve. Attempts to invent a motorized wheelchair were made as far back as 1916, however, no successful commercial production occurred at that time. The first electric-powered wheelchair was invented by Canadian inventor, George Klein and his team of engineers while working for the National Research Council of Canada in a program to assist the injured veterans returning after World War II. George Klein also invented the microsurgical staple gun. Everest Jennings, the same company whose founders created the folding wheelchair were the first to manufacture the electric wheelchair on a mass scale beginning in 1956. Mind Control John Donoghue and Braingate invented a new wheelchair technology intended for a patient with very limited mobility, who otherwise would have issues using a wheelchair by themselves. The BrainGate device is implanted into the patients brain and hooked to a computer to which the patient can send mental commands that results in any machine including wheelchairs doing what they want it to. The new technology is called BCI or brain-computer interface.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
US Democracy - Essay Example The question how democratic is democracy in U.S may seem challenging to a lay man but it is clear from the U.S constitution that the states practice democracy in almost all their dealings. However to some extent America system of governance has failed to adopt some of the some of the innovations and modifications in the democratic systems and ideal. The United States constitution allows the common citizens to participate in various democratic processes such as election and taking part in referendum in case there is any. However to some extent the American democracy gets dilute day by day with more of her power Washington. The states are becoming more republic consolidated government. The "politically correct" and "historical revisionists" have soiled United States with restrained but disparaging autocracies that have extremely dented our free democratic people. Politicians use the term democracy when they need something from the publics, and they use the term republic when they do no t need something from the citizens. It is political system and where the legal force is regulated through given and enumerated powers. For instance, the United States Constitution, and predominantly the Bill of Rights, was premeditated to limit governments part to what United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ founding forefathers saw as governments utmost vital functions. The main functions were to reserve individual liberty and defend private property. Moreover, Persons differ in their perception of a limited government, nonetheless, one common understanding is that a limited government is one that imposes just ample taxes to deliver for state defense and police security and then stays out of publics undertakings. As an example, a limited government is one that does not distress itself with issues such as what sallies should employees get from the jobs they do, retirement investment schemes of